Word for Sword in Various Languages

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Th

This list is compiled from multiple sources and should be regarded as a source of clues, not a definitive translation of the word sword. The words seen in this list are sometimes used by collectors to refer to a particular typeof sword but that is not necessarily the case; a word may be generic for “sword” and include a large number of different types. Remember also that the meaning of words must account for who is saying it, where they are saying it, when they are saying it, and the social context at that moment.

Afro-Asiatic

Berber

  • Guanche: maγidaw / magido
  • Kabyle (Taqbaylit): asekkin / isekkin; aṭaɣan / aṭiɣan; flissa; lemca / llemca
  • Riff (Tarifit): ssif
  • Shilha (Tashelhit): taguba
  • Tamahaq - Tahaggart: ta-kub-a
  • Tamajeq - Tayart: tăkoba

Chadic

  • Hausa: bisalami; findi; knsaklī; tagomas; tkṑbī / takbii / tkwṑbīl; tsuuraa
  • Kera: kbkb
  • Tumak: kbkb

Cushitic

  • Somali: bilawa, bilawai; seef, seif

Semitic

  • Akkadian: nams̩āru(m)
  • Ge'ez: 'afot; 'erag; matḥ; say
  • Amharic: አፋ afa; ቢላዋ bilawa; ጩቤ č'ub; ገጀራ gǧra; ጊሌ gile; ጎራዴ gorade / gʷrade; ቆንጨራ qonč'ra; ሰንጢ snt'i; ሰይፍ syf; ሻሙላ šamula; ሾተል šotl
  • Ugaritic: mams̩āru
  • Biblical Hebrew: חרב / khrev
  • Hebrew: חרב / khrev; סיף / sayif
  • Egyptian: ḫpš / khopesh; mšw; sf.t
  • Arabic: سيف sayf
  • Andalusian Arabic: sayf, șimșam(ah)
  • Maltese: sejf, xabla

Ainu

  • Ainu: エムㇱ / emus

Austro-Asiatic

Khasi-Khmuic

  • Riang: wac.2
  • Konto: laŋ.2-, vac.2
  • Samtao: vac.2
  • U: viaic
  • Lawa: vec

Mon-Khmer

  • Vietnamese: gươm, kiếm

Austronesian

Malayo-Polynesian

  • Cebuano: espada
  • Filipino / Tagalog: espada / ispada; kris; sable; tabak
  • Hiligaynon (Ilonggo): espada
  • Ilongot: espadaI
  • Ivatan: ispada; tuturuk
  • Kapampangan: espada / ispada; kris; tabak; talibung
  • Tausug: barung; kalis; kampilan; puddang
  • Waray-Waray: espada
  • Malay: mandau; pedang
  • Indonesian: mandau; pedang
  • Tetum: surik
  • Chuukese: kktinaas / kketinaas
  • Fijian: selet
  • Gilbertese (Kiribati): te kabang
  • Hawaiian: pahi kaua pālahalaha
  • Maori: hani; hoari; maipi; pouwhenua; taiaha
  • Motu: ilapa
  • Nauruan: ipudutubwin
  • Tongan: heleta

Basque

  • Basque: ezpata

Dravidian

Northern

  • Brahui: pD / pđ

Central

  • Telugu: కత్తి / katti; ఖడ్గము / khadgamu; vālu

Southern

  • Tamil: அருவாள் / aruval; வாள் / vāḷ
  • Malayalam: വാൾ / vāḷ
  • Kodava: bāḷɨ katti
  • Kota: vāḷ
  • Toda: pōɫ̣
  • Kannada: bāḷ(u); ಕತ್ತಿ / katti
  • Badaga: bāļu; pațțekatti
  • Tulu: bāḷụ / bālụ

Hmong-Mien

Miao-Bunu

  • Hmong: ntaj

Indo-European

  • Proto Indo-European: *nsis-
  • Albanian: jatagan; kordh; pall; shpat
  • Armenian: սուսեր / suser; թքուր / t’k’ur; թուր / t’ur; խոցասուսեր / xoc’asowser

Balto-Slavic

  • Old Prussian: kalabian
  • Sudovian: kalavian
  • Latvian: durklis; zobens
  • Lithuanian: kalavijas; kardas; špaga
  • Samogitian: kalavėjs
  • Proto-Slavic: *mьčь / *mečь
  • Old Church Slavonic: ⰏⰅⰝⰠ / мєчь / mečĭ
  • Bosnian: mač
  • Croatian: mač
  • Serbian: мач / mač
  • Slovenian: meč
  • Bulgarian: меч / meč; рапира / rapiera; сабя / sabr; шпага / špaga
  • Macedonian: меч / meč
  • Polish: kord; miecz; oręż; pałasz; szabla; szpada
  • Kashubian: miecz
  • Lower Sorbian: mjac
  • Upper Sorbian: mječ
  • Czech: kord; meč; šavle
  • Slovak: kord; meč; šabľa
  • Old East Slavic: мечь / mečĭ
  • Belarusian: меч / mieč; сабля / shablya
  • Russian: меч / mech; палаш / palash; рапира / rapira; сабля / sablya; шашка / shashka; шпага / shpaga
  • Ukrainian: меч / mech; шпага / shpaha

Celtic

  • Proto-Celtic: *kladimo- / *kladyos
  • Cisalpine Gaulish: *kladyos
  • Old Irish: claideb; colg; dubchend
  • Irish: claomh
  • Manx: cliwe
  • Scottish Gaelic: claidheamh
  • Welsh: cledd / cleddau / cleddyf; glaif
  • Cornish: cledhe / gledhe / glethe / kledhe
  • Breton: klezev

Germanic

  • Proto-Germanic: *mēkijaz; *swerdą
  • Old High German: swert
  • German: Degen; Klinge; Sbel; Schwert
  • Yiddish: שווערד / shverd
  • Old English: bil; heoru; mēċe; secg; sweord
  • English: sword
  • Scots: swuird
  • Old Frisian: swerd
  • East Frisian: swid
  • West Frisian: swurd
  • Old Saxon: māki; swert
  • Low German: Sweert
  • Old Dutch: swert
  • Dutch: degen; sabel; zwaard
  • Afrikaans: saber; swaard
  • Old Norse: mkir; sver
  • Danish: kaarde; sabel; svrd
  • Faroese: svr
  • Icelandic: sver
  • Norwegian: sverd
  • Swedish: svrd
  • Gothic: hairus; ������������ / mēkeis / �������� / mēki
  • Crimean Gothic: mycha

Hellenic

  • Greek: κοπίς / kops; σπάθη / spth; ξίφος / xfos

Indo-Iranian

  • Classical Sanskrit: असि / asi; खड्ग / khaḍga / khaṅga
  • Bengali: অসি / asi
  • Gujarati: તલવાર / talavāra
  • Hindi: खड्ग / khaḍga; कृपाण / kr̥pāṇa; पट / pata; सैनिक शक्ति / sainika śakti; तलवार / talavāra
  • Punjabi: ਭਗਉਤੀ / bhaga'utī; ਚੰਡੀ / caḍī; ਖੜਗ / khadag; ਖੰਡਾ / khaṇḍā; ਕਿਰਪਾਨ / kirapāna; ਸੈਫ਼ / saifa; ਸਾਰੰਗ / sāraga; ਸਰੋਹੀ / sārohī; ਤਲਵਾਰ / talavāra; ਤੇਗ਼ / tegh
  • Romani: kardo
  • Urdu: تلوار / talvār
  • Old Persian: akīnaka(h)
  • Pahlavi: šmšyl
  • Kurdish - Kurmanji: şimşr; şr
  • Kurdish - Sorani: شێر / shaer; شمشێر / shimshaer
  • Persian: شمشیر / shamshīr
  • Dari: شمشير / shamshīr
  • Shughni - Rushani: nemo

Italic

  • Latin: acinaces; ēnsis; gladius; harpe; machaera; spatha
  • Italian: sciabola; spada
  • Corsican: scibula; spada; stoccu
  • Sicilian: spata
  • Old French: espee
  • Anglo-Norman: espee; glaive
  • French: pe; espade; glaive; sabre
  • Cajun French: glaive; sabre
  • Arpitan - Forzien: ligoussa; ragueiri
  • Occitan: espasa
  • Aragonese: espata
  • Asturian: espada
  • Catalan: espasa; glavi; sabre
  • Spanish: espada; estoque; sabre
  • Galician: espada
  • Portuguese: espada; gldio; sabre
  • Romanian: paloş; sabie; spadă / spad

Paleo-Balkan

  • Thracian: rhomphaia; sklmē

Tocharian

  • Tocharian A (Turfanian): kāre
  • Tocharian B (Kuchean): apsāl*; kertte

Japonic

Japanese: 刀 / katana; 太刀 / tachi; 剣 / tsurugi

  • Sino-Japanese: 刀 / -tō; 太刀 / daitō; 剣 / ken
  • Okinawan: katana

Kartvelian

Karto-Zan

  • Georgian: ხმალი / khmali

Korean

Korean: 칼 / (MR) kal / (YR) gal; 검 / (MR) kem / (YR) geom; 무력 / (MR) mwulyŏk / (YR) mulyeog

Mongolic

Central

  • Mongolian: илд / ild; сэлэм / selem

Niger-Congo

Atlantic-Congo

  • Bena: ilimage / limage; lipanga
  • Bondei: kahamba / uhamba; jambia; upanga
  • Bungu: ipanga
  • Chewa: lupanga
  • Dawida: ifumu; lufu
  • Doe: panga; sime
  • Embu: kIviU; njUra
  • Ewe: klante adekpui; yi
  • Fipa: insiinge; uupanga
  • Ganda: kiso; kitaba
  • Gikuyu: panga; sime
  • Gweno: ipanga; ngalu
  • Gwere: kipanga; kisso
  • Gusii: omoyio obirende
  • Hangaza: inkota
  • Haya: embanda
  • Hehe: ilimaage; ilipaanga
  • Ikizu: esarara; risabha
  • Ikoma: nyamutangara; omoiryo
  • Iramba: sime; umupanga
  • Jita: echimali
  • Kamba - Kitu: kavyU
  • Kamba - Machakos: UvyU
  • Kara (Kilegi): liyalo
  • Kibosho: kyandu
  • Kiga: ekisyo; rurara
  • Kimbu: inguviluu; ulupanga
  • Kinga: imundu
  • Kinyarwanda: inkota
  • Kirundi: inkota
  • Kwere: panga; sime
  • Lambya: sime; umupanga
  • Lozi: mukwale; sabule
  • Luhya - Bukusu: eembaluM
  • Machame: usu / usuu
  • Makonde: sambala; upanga
  • Malila: ishipanga
  • Matengo: upanga
  • Matumbi: lipanga
  • Meru: ipanga; rubiu; shombo
  • Mpoto: lipanga
  • Mwanga: u-lupanga
  • Mwera: chikwanje; limaje; upanga
  • Ndengereko: mpunga; nnunda
  • Ngindo: lipanga
  • Ngoni: upanga
  • Nyakyusa: ulubo
  • Nyambo: echisyo; embanda
  • Nyamwezi: lUpAngA
  • Nyaturucha: ng'engo; sime
  • Nyaturuwil: ifaango; ufaanga
  • Nyiha: umfu
  • Nyoro: ekiso
  • Pangwa: lipanga
  • Pimbwe: ulupanga; umnunda
  • Pogolo: lipanga; shihimbi
  • Rungwa: ensinge; ulupanga
  • Shubi: igipaanga; inkota
  • Siha: obanga; shobo
  • Sonjo: bogwE-ne; ruruba
  • Sukuma: panga
  • Swahili: upanga; shime; vikitara
  • Taabwa: lupanga
  • Tharaka: kajiu; rujiu
  • Toro: empirima
  • Tumbuka: upanga
  • Vinza: ikisyu; ulupanga
  • Vunjo: isinge; ushu
  • Vwanji: limaghe
  • Wanda: chiweko; lupanga
  • Yao: lipanga / wu-paanga; nkalo
  • Yoruba: agada; agẹdẹmgbẹ; id; ogb
  • Zanaki: ehazi; embazo; erisaba
  • Zaramo: sengo; sime
  • Zigula: sime
  • Zinza: embaanda / embanda; orupaanga
  • Zulu: kemba

Nilo-Saharan

Eastern

  • Dongolawi: swıd
  • Maasai: olalim; seme
  • Shillul: gochi / goji

Fur

  • Fur: saar

Saharan

  • Kanuri: kashaar

Songhay

  • Zarma: takuba

Northeast Caucasian

Nakh

  • Chechen: тур / tur

Pama-Nyungan

Yuin-Kuric

  • Awabakal: yir-ra / yirra

Sino-Tibetan

Sinitic

  • Old Chinese: 刀 / *tāw
  • Mandarin Chinese: 刀 / dāo; 劍 / jin

Tibeto-Burman

  • Kachin: nthu1

Tai-Kadai

Tai

  • Bouyei: ša.4
  • Saek: tha.4
  • Zhuang - Longzhou: pja.4
  • Thai: ดาบ / dāb / daab / darb; กระบี่ / krabī̀
  • Ahom: hengdang

Turkic

Kipchak

  • Kazakh: қылыш / qılış; шашка / šaška

Oghuz

  • Azerbaijani: qılınc; şəmşir
  • Gagauz: kılı
  • Turkish: kılı; pala; yatağan

Siberian

  • Sakha (Yakut): болот / bolot; кылыс / kılıs

Uyghuric

  • Old Turkic: kılı
  • Uyghur: قىلىچ / қилич / qilich
  • Uzbek: qilich

Uralic

Finnic

  • Estonian: mk
  • Vro: mk
  • Finnish: kalpa; miekka; sil; sapeli
  • Votic: mka

Mordvinic

  • Moksha: тор / tor

Ugric

  • Hungarian (Magyar): handzsr; kard; pallo(s)

Permian

  • Komi: шыпурт / shipurt

Algic

Algonquian

  • Ojibwe: ajaweshk

Chinookan

Chinook

  • opitsah

Mayan

Tzotzil: ʔespara

Muskogean

Western

  • Choctaw: bạshpo falaia

Quechua

  • Quechua: khillaychuki

Uto-Aztecan

  • Nahuatl: espada; tepozmaquahuitl / tepuzmacquahuitl
  • Yaqui: ejpaam

Conlangs

  • Eldar: iarstill
  • Esperanto: glavo
  • Interlingua: gladio; spada
  • Quenya: ecet; macil
  • Romulan: u'ra
  • Sindarin: crist; l(h)ang; magol / megil
  • Slovio: mecx